Grapes varieties



Wivines Loureira

Loureira, Loureiro or Loureiro Blanco is a white wine grape cultivated primarily in Galicia, Spain. It is also grown across the border in the Portuguese wine region of Minho where it is known as Loureiro and used in Vinho Verde. It is made either as a varietal wine or in a blend with Treixadura.

Loureira is also known under the synonym Arinto,that is a white Portuguese wine grape planted primarily in the Bucelas, Tejo and Vinho Verde regions. It can produce high acid wines. 




Wivines Godello

Godello is a white variety of wine grape grown in northwestern Spain, in particular in Galicia. The Gouveio found in northern Portugal is thought to be the same grape variety.

Godello can produce fine white wines, and yields the best results in Valdeorras, where plantations have increased after having previously been in decline.

Verdelho is the name given to a small collection of grape varieties (of which Godello is a major member) grown in Portugal, Spain, Australia and, more recently, the Americas. It is thought to be of Portuguese origin and has a long history on the island of Madeira, where it was the most planted variety in the 19th Century.

In Madeira, Verdelho was known as a style of wine, an oxidised white wine consisting of Bual and Sercial grapes, but in 1993 it was decided that the word would be used to describe a particular grape variety. In Spain, this variety is principally grown in Galicia (where it is known as Godello) and may be blended with Albariño or Treixadura.



Wivines Treixadura

Trajadura (or Treixadura) is the golden-green grape found predominantly in northern Portugal’s Vinho Verde wines and across the border in Galicia, Spain. This white-wine variety is used mostly in blends to add body and crisp citrus notes.

In Vinho Verde, Trajadura (as the variety is known in Portugal) is most commonly combined with Loureiro and Alvarinho (Albarino) and, to a lesser extent, with Arinto and other esoteric varieties. To the north and into Spain (where it is known as Treixadura), it is the principal grape of Ribeiro, but can also be found in Rias Baixas. In Ribeiro it produces single-varietal wines, as well as blends with the other permitted white varieties Torrontes, Lado, Godello (Verdelho), Albarino, Palomino, Albillo and Macabeo (Viura). In Rias Baixas, Albarino and Loureira are its preferred blending partners.



Wivines Viura

Macabeo, also called Viura or Macabeu (Catalan: [məkəˈβew], French: [makabø]) is a white variety of wine grape.

It is widely grown in the Rioja region of northeastern Spain, the Cava producing areas south of Barcelona, and the Languedoc-Roussillon region of France.
The grape is mostly used to make mildly acidic and young white wines mostly suitable for early consumption or blending with other varieties, both red and white. It is often the main grape of white Rioja and is sometimes blended in small amounts with Tempranillo and red Garnacha, both in unoaked and oaked versions. Some producers of white Rioja make superior wines (Reserva and Gran Reserva) subjected to extended ageing that can span decades, resulting in a highly distinctive and aromatic wine.

Macabeo (or Macabeu as it is known in Catalan) is traditionally blended with Xarel·lo and Parellada to make a sparkling Cava, the best known sparkling wine of Spain. It is also used in the base spirit used to create Obsello Absinthe.

In Roussillon, late picked Macabeo is also used in fortified wine (vin doux naturel).



Wivines Graciano

A red grape that was once of vital importance in the Rioja region of northern Spain. Prone to disease and low yields it nonetheless produces wines of considerable weight, pigmentation, perfume and quality. The low yields proved to be its undoing in both Rioja and in France where it is known as Morrastel. It was crossed with the hybrid Petit Bouschet to produce the heartier Morrastel-Bouschet which eventually replaced it. Still found in very small amounts in the southwest of France, as well as Rioja in Spain, Mendoza in Argentina (as Graciana), and in Australia. Not to be confused with Monastrell which is the Spanish synonym for the Mourvedre. Wine (if you can find it) from Graciano has intense black fruits, red cherries and red plums and can be very long lived.



Wivines Mazuelo

The name for Carignan used in the Rioja region of northern Spain. The third most planted varietal in Spain. Buds and ripens late, so is best suited for warm climates. Tannic and acidic the Mazuelo is most often used in Spain as a blending grape.

Famous more for its high productivity than for producing wines of distinction, the Carignan is one of the most highly planted grapes that you have probably never heard of. Planted in huge amounts in the south of France, most of which is used for industrial purposes. The Carignan is heavy in acidity, tannins and color, which make it great for blending, but also high in bitterness, which makes it not so hot by itself. It grows well in hot climates, exhibiting flavors of pepper and plum in its inky depths.

Carignane originated in Spain where it is known as Cariñena, but dominates the south of France, especially the Languedoc where it is known as Carignan. It is also widely planted in Italy (Carignano), as well as the United States, Mexico and South America.



Wivines Verdejo

A white-skinned variety that is grown extensively in the region of Rueda in northwestern Spain. Wines from Rueda have a delightful mix of honey, pears and crisp acidity, while they also oxidise readily and can take on a nutty character with age. Often Verdejo is blended with both Viura and Sauvignon Blanc, but some examples of pure Verdejo grown at higher elevations can be excellent and take well to both oak and bottle aging. As the name suggests there are many reasons to suspect that this is the same varietal as the Verdelho of the Portuguese island of Madeira as well as the Verdello which can be found in Italy though as of yet no true connection has been made.



Wivines Parellada

Part of the blend with Macabeo and Xarel-lo that make up the Spanish sparkling wine Cava. When grown in cooler climates the Parellada can be coaxed to produce excellent still wines with hints of citrus and golden apples that will take well to long-term aging. Also found in the Cariñena region further to the west.



Wivines Bobal

Bobal is a variety of Vitis Vinifera, a red grape used in winemaking. It is native to the Utiel-Requena region in Valencia, Spain. The name derives from the Latin bovale, in reference to the shape of a bull’s head. It is grown predominantly in the Utiel-Requena DO where it represents about 90% of all vines grown, and is also present in significant quantities in Valencia, Cuenca and Albacete. It can only be found in small quantities in other regions of Spain: La Manchuela (Castile La Mancha), selected vineyards in Ribera de Guadiana DO, Alicante DO, Murcia, Campo de Borja, Calatayud, Cariñena, Valdejalón. Small quantities are also grown in Rosellón (south of France) and in Sardinia (Italy).


El Xarel·lo

Wivines Xarello

Xarel·lo is the flagship variety of the DO Penedès. Brilliant, unique and rewarding... the essence of the territory.

Xarel·loXarel·lo is the most widely planted variety in the DO Penedès with over 7000 hectares under vine. It adapts well to the terrors and climates of the Penedès. It is a rustic plant with steady growth that shoots early in the spring. Resistant to both drought and heat, production and quality are well balanced year after year, improving in old vines.




Wivines Tempranillo

Tempranillo (also known as Ull de Llebre, Cencibel, Tinta del Pais and several other synonyms) is a black grape variety widely grown to make full-bodied red wines in its native Spain. Its name is the diminutive of the Spanish temprano ("early"), a reference to the fact that it ripens several weeks earlier than most Spanish red grapes. Tempranillo has been grown on the Iberian Peninsula since the time of Phoenician settlements. It is the main grape used in Rioja, and is often referred to as Spain's noble grape. The grape has been planted throughout the globe in places such as Mexico, New Zealand, California, Washington State, South Africa, Texas, Australia, Argentina, Portugal, Uruguay, Turkey and Canada.

Unlike more aromatic red wine varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir, Tempranillo has a relatively neutral profile so it is often blended with other varieties, such as Grenache and Carignan (known in Rioja as Mazuelo), or aged for extended periods in oak where the wine easily takes on the flavor of the barrel. Varietal examples of Tempranillo usually exhibit flavors of plum and strawberries.

Tempranillo is an early ripening variety that tends to thrive in chalky vineyard soils such as those of the Ribera del Duero region of Spain. In Portugal, where the grape is known as Tinto Roriz and Aragonez, it is blended with others to produce Port wine



Garnacha Tinta

Wivines Garnacha

Vincultural characteristics

Very good adaptation, high production, low proof. Large orbicular-cuneiform leaves whose petiolar sinus is often open in a V. Green veins and petioles, medium compact bunches that ripen very late.

Organoleptic properties Aromatic wines in which mature strawberry predominates, of low colour and medium acidity. Medium tannin. High oxidative potential.


Garnacha Blanca

Wivines Garnacha

Grenache blanc is a variety of white wine grape that is related to the red grape Grenache. It is mostly found in Rhône wine blends and in northeast Spain. Its wines are characterized by high alcohol and low acidity, with citrus and or herbaceous notes. Its vigor can lead to overproduction and flabbiness. However, if yields are controlled, it can contribute flavor and length to blends, particularly with Roussanne. Since the 1980s, it has been the fifth most widely planted white wine grape in France after Ugni blanc, Chardonnay, Semillon and Sauvignon blanc.

Grenache blanc is thought to have originated as a mutation of the red version of Grenache in Spain. It then spread across the Pyrenees to France, finding a second home in the Rhône.

Grenache blanc is an important variety in the French wine region of the Rhône Valley, often blended with Roussanne in wines and even being included in some red wines. It is a major component in the white wines of the Châteauneuf-du-Pape and Côtes du Rhône AOCs.

In Spain it is mostly found in the Spanish wine regions along the Pyrenees, particularly in Navarra and the Terra Alta region in Catalonia. It is also widely planted in the Priorat, Alella and Aragon. It is permitted in the white wines of Rioja but is not widely used due to the tendency of the must to oxidize easily.


Pinot Noir

Wivines Pinot Noir
The Pinot Noir is a variety of red grapes (Vitis vinifera), considered one of the most international and elegant. The name may also refer to wine created from the strain of Pinot Noir. The name of the grape comes from the French words for "pine" and "black" respectively, as the cluster grows from this strain has the shape of a pine cone and black tone that gives characteristic purplish color. Pinot Noir grapes grow worldwide, especially in cold regions, but it is common to associate with the Burgundy region in France for being the birthplace of the best wines that use this type of grapes. It originated in Burgundy is one of the strains that make up the mixture of most Champagne (sparkling region of the same name), as well as many sparkling world.

He is also considered one of the finest in the world for the production of varietal wines in Burgundy varieties gives some of the most exclusive and expensive wines in the world because of its low production, such as Romanee Conti. It is believed may be the mother of Spanish Tempranillo grape. It is a variety which is not easily adapted to any region, it requires a cold climate to achieve good results. The main producing regions and countries of this variety are: France, Germany, the Willamette Valley region in Oregon, Sonoma County, California, Australia, Argentina, cold valleys of Chile and South Africa. In Spain, according to the Order APA / 1819/2007, by Annex V, classification of vine varieties, of Royal Decree 1472/2000, of 4 August, which regulates wine production potential is upgraded, pinot noir is recommended for autonomous las Comunidades of Aragon, Catalonia, Extremadura, La Rioja and Valencia variety, also is authorized in Andalusia, Asturias, the Balearic Islands, Cantabria, Castile-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Navarra and the Basque Country. It is grown in vineyards delPenedés Superior.

In Argentina, several wineries that achieved very good examples, giving round and strongly scented wines in the valley of Uco in Mendoza and Neuquén river valley in Patagonia. Its berries are small, purplish black, waxed by abundant bloom. The skin is thin and soft pulp.

This vine is a very fine wine. It is characterized by low taninosa structure, medium body and subtle refined awakening sensations in the mouth. Pinot Noir produces an extremely soft, fresh and fruity wine with a good bouquet, with an acidity that makes it quite lively and persistent on the palate, without being aggressive. On the nose, red Pinot Noir can achieve excellence aroma (cherry, cassis, strawberry, raspberry, violet, leather, licorice evolve a delicate aroma with aging) and support good parenting. The aromas of this wine are red and black fruits like cherry, blackberry, raspberry, plum, among the highlights. The primary aromas are determined by black currants, truffles. It also highlights floral notes such as roses withered. In view, it is a wine that has a special light, reminiscent of a more opaque than shiny red tile, unlike the French Pinot Noir wines that are characterized by a much more luminous glow. Its color varies according to age: a red, ruby or violet when young, with an ocher orange after 8-10 years of aging, maintaining a middle layer. The palate is usually light wine, yet structured, if vinified the old Burgundian style, you may need years of aging to soften the tannins provided by the stalks.

Cariñena o Mazuelo

Wivines Mazuelo

Carignan grapes (French carignan, in carignano Italian, English US carignane) is a Spanish red grape variety. The most widely grown grape in the world is considered. It originated as some of Cariñena (Aragon). According to the Order APA / 1819/2007, by Annex V is updated, classification of vine varieties, of Royal Decree 1472/2000, of 4 August, by which the potential of vine production is regulated, the mazuela is recommended for Aragon, Catalonia (where it is also known as samsó), Basque Country and La Rioja variety; It is authorized in Castilla-La Mancha, Extremadura and Navarra. It is found mainly in Catalonia and La Rioja. In the first, it is the basis for Priorat wines, also being in Costers del Segre, Empordà, Penedès, Tarragona and Terra Alta. Enologically the Carignan grape is characterized by its high color intensity and also for its high concentration of sugars. That is, this variety is used for the production of wines with lots of color and lots of alcohol. In the second part of the Designation of Origin Rioja. Also it appears in Calatayud, Campo de Borja, Cariñena, Navarra and Ribera del Guadiana denominations. In France it is grown from the Eastern Pyrenees to the Aude; It is the most characteristic of the region of the South. It is also cultivated in Sardinia and parts of Italy. It was cultivated in Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco. It is also present in the New World wine: California, Chile, Argentina, Mexico and, to a lesser extent, in South Africa or China. Carignan, crossed with the cabernet sauvignon variety has produced the ruby cabernet and crossed with the same Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache, the carnelian. It is also called Mazuelo. Carignan Carignan and come as some of the Basque word mats, while others say it comes from deck, due to its shape.

Crujillón or crucillón (Aragon) and Samsó (Penedes) or sanso (Barcelona). Other names: babonenc, bois dur, hard boue, cagnolaro red, Cagnan, Cangnan or cangnane (Languedoc, carignan (in French), carignan Moullan, Carignan noir, carignane (France), Carignan (Catalonia), carignano, Catalan, crusilló, Girarde, gragnano (Italy), hard legno, Carignan red, melon de Bourgogne, mollard, Monestel, Muscadet de Bourgogne, plant Ledenon, roussillonen, samso crusillo, sopatna blau, red Carignan and San Joaquin Valley in California). It is a very productive plant, up to 150 hectoliters per hectare. It is susceptible to diseases such as powdery mildew and downy mildew and moisture. It is late budding, which makes reach no spring frosts. Its leaves are large, shaped like a pentagon and very pronounced breasts. It has clusters of large and compact size. The berries are medium size, round and blackish blue. It has a high amount of tannins, which determines its great capacity for aging, and high acidity.



Wivines Syrah

Syrah is a red variety of vine (Vitis vinifera). This variety can create a single varietal wine called also Shiraz. Other names that can be written this variety are candive noir, entournerein, hermitage, hignin noir, petite syrah, biaune plan, Shiraz, serine, seräne, shiraz, sirac, syrah and syra. Is important information to know that Syrah's name comes from the cold zones FRANCEand the name of Shiraz comes from the warm regions of Australia. The origin of this strain is surrounded by controversies and doubts.

One of the theses is that comes from the Persian city of Shiraz, where the Phoenicians or some centuries later Crusaders would have taken to Gaul. According to others, it comes from Syracuse in Sicily. It has a significant presence in central and southern France, which has resulted in it believes may be native to the Rhone region where single-varietal wines are made from this grape, especially the Hermitage. This variety was brought to the New World wine: Australia (there called shiraz), Chile and California. In Spain the first wineries to grow and develop with syrah were Enrique Mendoza Alicante and Carlos Falco (Marqués de Grinon) in Malpica de Tajo in Montes de Toledo. This grape has spread through Extremadura, La Mancha and Aragón. Currently, you can be in the Condado de Huelva, Somontano, Penedes, in Priorat and La Mancha, Mentrida, Ribera del Duero, Rioja and Tarragona. In Jumilla Monastrell mixed. Syrah is a grape variety for wine recommended in the Spanish regions of Catalonia, Extremadura and Valencia. It is authorized in Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, the Balearic Islands, Cantabria, Castile-La Mancha, Madrid, Comunidad Foral de Navarra and Murcia.

Apex outbreak: cottony, white-green; some with outboard slightly carminados. Stem herbaceous: slightly curved, with upturned ends, woolly, more towards the apex; green with, with some brown discoloration in knots. Flakes: Apical: folded, fluffy, white-greenish, with some dye carminado at the edges. Baseline: little folded, top face woolly, cottony at the bottom, green-whitish or golden hue. Hermaphrodite flower. Adult leaf: Central lobe flat or folded asymmetrically, side upturned; nediana; orbicular; moderately blistered, with varying intensity; Green; opaque; typically lobed. Indument lower face: abundant web. Teeth: convex, great. Petiole sinus U lira trend. Petiole point: whitish. Petiole: medium; woolly; reddish-brown. Bunch: Conical-elongated, cylindrical trend; medium; Compact or full. Berry: Black-bluish, ellipsoidal-medium; neutral; soft pulp.



Wivines Chardonnay

Chardonnay is a grape variety used to make green skin white wine. It is native to the wine region of Burgundy in eastern France but is now grown wherever wine is produced, from England to New Zealand. For new and developing wine regions it is seen as a "rite of passage" and as an easy entry into the international wine market. The Chardonnay grape itself is very neutral, with many of the flavors commonly associated with grape and those derived from land and oak. It is vinified in many different styles, from the lean, mineral wines of Chablis crisp and France to the New World with oak and tropical fruit notes. In cold climates (like the French region of Chablis and Carneros American Viticultural Area of California), the chardonnay tends to have a medium to light body, a remarkable acidity and flavors of green plum, apple and pear. In hot locations (such as Adelaide Hills, the Mornington Peninsula in Australia and regions of Gisborne and Marlborough in New Zealand) the flavors become more citrus and melon and peach while in very hot locations (such as the Central Coast Viticultural Area American California) more notes of tart and tropical fruits such as bananas and mangoes appear. Wines that have gone through the fermentation manoláctica tend to have lower acidity and fruit flavors with a buttery mouthfeel and notes of hazelnut. The chardonnay is an important component of many sparkling wines around the world, including champagne. A peak of popularity in the late 1980s resulted in a reaction about this wine grapes did see a negative component of the globalization of wine. However, it remains one of the varieties most widely planted grape, with some 160,000 hectares around the world, only after the Airen between grapes and white wine planted more than any other wine regions including cabernet sauvignon grapes.

Chardonnay is a native of the Burgundy vineyard, and more precisely around the village of Chardonnay which already growing vines mentioned in the tenth century If the Roman name of the town was Cardonacum (a place where it grows thorns, chardon in French), this evolved into chardonnay and the strain became known as chardenet, chaudenet or chardenay until Congress of Ampelography of Chalon-sur-Saône in 1896 set the name actual.5 Some recent scientific studies have established the genetics of chardonnay as the result of cross-pollination between pinot noir and blanc Gouais already disappeared, some older strains that existed in Burgundy before chardonnay. The chardonnay has a reputation for its relatively easy culture and its ability to adapt to different conditions. The grape is malleable, and this is reflected in the printing of their land and wine makers. It is a highly vigorous wine, with extensive coverage of sheet that can inhibit the energy and nutrients consumed by the bunch of grapes.

Agronomists counteract this with extensive pruning and canopy management. When chardonnay vines are planted densely, they are forced to compete for resources and energy in its embuyen bunch of grapes. Under some conditions the vines can have very high performance, but the wine produced from these vines will suffer a drop in quality if performance goes far beyond the 4.5 tons per acre (80 hl / ha). The producers of premium chardonnay limit performance at less than half this amount, since the concentrated flavors are not as important as the fineness of the wine. Harvest time is crucial for making wine with a grape acidity rapidly losing from it matures. Some dangers of viticulture include the risk of damage from spring frost, being the chardonnay wine early, usually a week after the pinot noir. To combat the risk of frost, a method developed in Burgundy involves an aggressive pruning just before sprouting. This produces a chock to the vine and delayed sprouting about two weeks, which is usually enough for warmer weather comes. The coulure millerandage and can also pose problems with powdery mildew attacking the thin skin of the grapes. In the early maturity of the chardonnay, can thrive in wine regions with a short growing season in regions such as Burgundy, it will be harvested before the autumn rains arrive bringing the threat of podredumbre.10 While Chardonnay can adapt to almost all vineyard soils, the three it seems to like most are chalk, limestone and clay, which are abundant through the traditional homeland of the Chardonnay.

The Grand crus of Chablis is planted on slopes kimeridgian marl, clay and chalk. Peripheral regions, falling under the most basic Petit Chablis appellation are planted in clay portlandia produces wines with less finesse. Chalk beds it is through the Champagne region and the Côte d'Or has some composed of clay and limestone areas. In Burgundy, the abundance of clay which chardonnay vines are exposed also seems to have some effect on the resulting wine. In the region of Meursault, the first cru vineyard planted in Meursault-Charmes has the floor surface layer has in its nearly two meters of limestone and wine of this region is much more powerful, mineralized and thin, needing more time in the bottle fully develop. In other areas, the soil type can compensate for lack of ideal weather conditions. In South Africa, for example, regions with stony clay soil and high levels of limestone tend to produce a less flexible and more wine in the style of Burgundy, despite having a distinctly different climate to that of France. In contrast, chardonnay wine produced from vineyards more based on sandstone tends to be more enriched and heavier.


Malvasía or Subirat Parent

Wivines Subirat

The term refers to a family Malvasia varieties from the Mediterranean and the island of Madeira, but now grown in all wine regions worldwide. Although generally speaking Malvasia to refer to the white variety, there is also the name Malvasia ink black Malvasia. Different varieties differ significantly from each other by the morphology of the plant, color, flavor and biochemical composition of the fruit, earliness of ripening, productivity and suitability for winemaking. The Malvasia vines are of two groups: those with a slight aroma reminiscent of muscat and others of simple flavor. Other names by which it is known are: Arinto do dao, assario branco, fine white, red white, blanquirroja, cachudo boal, malmsey, Canarian Malvasia, fine Malvasia, Rioja Malvasia (the name by which it is known in La Rioja) rojal, Subirat, Subirat parent and tobia. Sometimes Malvasia is designated with some complement: Sitges, red, Catalan, country, large (or Vermentino) grain, fat, early, edge, Alicante or Roussillon (submanifold called trobat). Limoux area is called in the Maccabean francésmalvoisie. It is unclear whether originating in Greece or Asia Minor. It is believed generally that comes from the first, although there is some controversy over the exact place where it originated and what varieties of grape are their predecessors. In analyzing its origin, one must differentiate between Malvasia Malvasia grapes and wine. A wine very appreciated call malvasia in Italian, Malvoisie in French, English and malvasier malmsey in German, was produced in Greece (and perhaps Crete) in the fourteenth to sixteenth. This early Malmsey wine was carried to Constantinople, Italy, France and northern Europe by the Venetians and other Italian merchants. It is said that the Duke Jorge de Clarence, brother of King Edward IV of England, was drowned in a "butt of malmsey" (cask of Malvasia) in the Tower of London in 1478, but this story is probably apocryphal.

The term "duck" is supposed to be an Italian corruption of the name of the Greek population of Monemvasia, a Venetian fortress on the coast of Laconia; this port would have acted as a trading center for wine produced in the eastern Peloponnese and perhaps in some of the Cyclades. A theory that competes with this maintains that the name derives Malevizi district, near the city Decandia in Crete. In any case, the duck was one of the three major wines exported from Greece in the Middle Ages, by the "Rumney" and the "wine of Crete". Both Monemvasia and Candia have given their name to modern varieties of grapes. In Greece, there is a variety conociva as Monemvasia, evidently named so by the port, but now cultivated mainly in the Cyclades. In Western Europe, a common variety called Malvasia white Malvasia of Candia (Candia Malvasia Bianca), as it is believed to have originated in that area. The Monemvasia grape was thought to be the ancestor of the varieties of Malvasia of Western Europe, however, recent DNA analysis suggests no relationship between Monemvasia and varieties of Malvasia. DNA analysis, however, suggest that the wine variety Athiri (a widely variety cultivated by all Greece) yes is the predecessor of the Malvasia.

Whatever its precise origin, the ancestor of modern varieties of Malvasia had extended westward along the Mediterranean lands in medieval times, from Greece to Naples, Sitges (Barcelona), Banyalbufar (Balearic Islands) and Turis (Valencia). He gave his final jump to Madeira shortly after the Portuguese began to settle on the island in the fifteenth century. And the same applies to the Canary Islands, conquered by the Spanish in the same century. This vine is very vigorous. Its production is low and tends to be susceptible to diseases. Due to its age and extension subvarieties they have arisen, but because of the low resistance to diseases, cultivation has been reduced and replaced with more resistant varieties. It has cluster of medium size and little compact. It is sensitive to rot. The term refers to a family Malvasia varieties from the Mediterranean, on the island of Madeira and the Canary Islands, but currently grown in all wine regions worldwide. Although generally speaking Malvasia to refer to the white variety, there is also the name Malvasia ink black Malvasia.

Different varieties differ significantly from each other by the morphology of the plant, color, flavor and biochemical composition of the fruit, earliness of ripening, productivity and suitability for winemaking. The Malvasia vines are of two groups: those with a slight aroma reminiscent of muscat and others of simple flavor.


Wivines Merlot

Merlot is a red, productive and first-brut vine. The cluster of merlot is cylindrical, small and thin. The grain is often burnished skin, sweet flesh and black bluish color. It belongs to the same family as cabernet: Cabernet franc and cabernet sauvignon. The name comes from the diminutive French blackbird, probably because of the similarity with his black and purple plumage. The merlot varietal wine is characterized by its finesse and softness, while aromatic and meaty. It is intense ruby color, middle-ranking and ages quickly without losing quality. It is complemented well in racking with garnacha for young wines, and to cabernet sauvignon, tempranillo bobal or for breeding. Merlot is originally from the Bordeaux region, where it is the most cultivated variety. It is mostly used in the preparation of the Medoc, a red Bordeaux from the Medoc region, and in some wines of northern Italy. On the other hand it has increased production merlot varietal wine in California much. It has become an international variety, the second most sought after red variety Cabernet Sauvignon, used primarily as a variety of improvement in racking to bring smoothness and balance.


Cabernet Sauvignon

Wivines Carbenet

Cabernet Sauvignon is a strain of French origin, the Bordeaux wine region, and one of the most recognized grape varieties worldwide. It is grown in almost every major wine producing countries. It adapts to a wide range of climatic conditions, from the Okanagan Valley, south of the Canadian province of British Columbia, to the Beqaa Valley in Lebanon. The Cabernet Sauvignon began to be recognized internationally from its strong presence in the wine from Bordeaux, which is often used in blended wines with Merlot and Cabernet Franc. From France, the grape spread throughout Europe and America that are easily adapted to various places like the American wine country of Napa Valley, Australia's Coonawarra region, the Maipo Valley In Chile, the Uco Valley in Argentina, among others . During most of the twentieth century was the most harvested premium variety of the world, until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 90s. Despite its strong presence in the wine industry, this grape is a relatively new variety, the product of a cross between Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc during the seventeenth century in southwest deFrancia. Its popularity is attributed to ease of cultivation-the grapes have thick skins and the vines are resistant to decay and heladas- his presentation consistent structure and flavors which express the typical character of the variety. Familiarity with the strain and ease of pronunciation in different languages have also helped disseminate Cabernet Sauvignon among consumers. However, its widespread popularity has also contributed to this grape is criticized as a "colonizing" monopolizing ending variety winelands regions at the expense of native grape varieties. It is grown in France, mainly in the Bordeaux wine region in Italy, in Central European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Slovenia, etc.), and the eastern Mediterranean (Cyprus, Greece, Israel and Lebanon). California, United States, Cabernet Sauvignon has developed his signature style and reputation, recognizable in the world market. Production and vineyards of this variety in California are similar in number to those of Bordeaux. In Latin America it has a strong presence in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. It is also grown in Australia and South Africa. The variety is fairly homogenous, with some differences in the way the cluster and the typical characteristics of the wine. It is characterized by its dense and aristocratic tannins, its deep color, complex fruity aromas, elegant structure and its suitability for breeding. Quite vigorous and mid-late budding variety, quite erect vegetation and medium-short internodes.

An intense, deep color, is tannic in their youth; but, when opened, it develops a panoply of flowery aromas (violet and rose), fruit (blueberries, cassis, raspberries, blueberries) and vegetables (green pepper, unroasted coffee, without forgetting the complexity that we can get at least a first passage through barrels). These aromas can become more complex with aging, showing notes of smoke, cedar, creosote, incense, licorice and an exciting fragrance of truffle. It fits best in temperate and dry climates or well ventilated areas in northern prefers well sun-exposed areas on hills and light soil especially in valleys. Not accept overly fertile, moist soil that induce great vigor and lignificación difficulties. It adapts well to various rules of pruning podoclimáticas considering the conditions. The production is regular and constant. Mature in the third period. Disease resistance is normal, it can be considered somewhat sensitive to drying cluster so it is necessary to consider the K / Mg ratio soil. The berries are small, spherical, thick and hard skin, with deep black pigment. Its flesh is firm, crisp, astringent taste, peculiar taste reminiscent of serbas.